It seems AirPods have problems with Windows 10 and HP Bluetooth drivers since Elitebook 855 G7, my previous laptop. Now I have G7 - the problem remains.
When I want to use AirPods with the laptop, I take one earphone from the case and it of course won't connects. Because they have been using with the phone. To connect them I open Bluetooth windows app, and press Connect button, Airpods paired with Windows so they are in the Paired state. After it the state changes to Connected for 2-3 seconds and then returns to Paired.
If I reboot the laptop, the same sequence works - they connect and work.