I have a Samsung Galaxy phone, and I had to go to Samsung and download their Mobile Phone drivers and install them before my desktop would see the phone's filesystem.
Even after that, when I connect to the PC, I have to tap the phone and scroll down through the Connection menu options to the bottom, where there is a selection for File Transfer.
So basically, you have to go to your phone manufacturer for the drivers.
There is an alternative in a product known as MOBILedit!. They have a trial version and that allows you to download their mobile phone drivers -- but it might work only with their apps. I tried their apps and they wouldn't write to my phone, so I uninstalled them.
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You can also try this from the first comment below...
Select MTP on the phone. Go to device manager. Uninstall the driver for the device detected in yellow. Disconnect, Connect. Update driver. Select from computer. Portable device. List of drivers. Select MTP USB device from 1st category. Complete wizard